What would happen if you threw a ball on other planets?

Ice FormationThe solar system is formed by the sun and over 1,700 smaller celestial bodies, including comets, asteroids and the planets with their satellites. Our solar system is located in one of the Milky Way spaces. In short, it is formed by the solar star and so many other celestial bodies around it. Of these, we can mention the moon, asteroids, planets and their satellites, along with everything that is present in outer space.

Scientists have been studying our solar system for years and still several questions remain undiscovered. As much as they know how some things behave when done here on Earth, there is always the question of how such an action would happen if it were done on another planet.

For example, what would it be like to simply throw a ball on other planets? Fortunately, planetary scientist James O’Donoghue put together a very entertaining animation to show how and how quickly the ball would fall if it were thrown elsewhere. As for example the sun, Ceres, Jupiter, the moon and pluto.

Play soccer

The animation made by O’Donoghue shows a ball falling from a height of one kilometer to the surface of each place. This drop is assumed as if there was no air resistance.

Watching the video it is possible to compare that the ball takes 2.7 seconds to fall that distance if it is in the sun, whereas here on Earth it takes 14.3 seconds to touch the ground. “This should give you an idea of ​​the attraction you would feel in each object,” he said.

What about the force of gravity on the planets against ours? Interestingly, it takes 13.8 seconds for the ball to land on Saturn and 15 seconds for it to touch the surface on Uranus.

“It may be surprising to see large planets have an attraction comparable to smaller ones on the surface. For example, Uranus pulls the ball down slower than on Earth! Why? Because Uranus’ low average density places the surface away from most of the mass. Likewise, Mars is almost twice as massive as Mercury, but you can see the surface gravity is actually the same. This indicates that Mercury is much denser than Mars,” explained O’Donoghue.

The busiest place to play the ball is Ceres. In it, the ball drops from one kilometer away in 84.3 seconds.

Experiment

Ice Formation In Body Of WaterIf you drop a feather and a hammer on the Moon from the same height at the same time, both land simultaneously. This is because without significant air resistance, all objects fall at the same rate (regardless of mass)

To create this animation, O’Donoghue had input from astronomer Rami Mandow. In addition, he used a NASA planetary information booklet as his reference.

And O’Donoghue also referred to one of the most famous gravitational experiments ever done. That was astronaut Dave Scott’s experiment on the moon. If you liked this video of the ball, O’Donoghue has several other great videos on his YouTube channel. Among them, there is one where it is possible to have a view of the speeds necessary to escape the pull of gravity on various bodies in the solar system .

Global Collapse Prediction Made In 1972 Seems To Be On The Right Track

Autumn, Mountains, Tree, High, LarchSince the dawn of humanity, the human being is fascinated by his own end. No wonder stories that explore the end of the world are so successful in fiction. There are several books that debate the destruction of the planet. Everyone remembers “The Day After Tomorrow” or “2012”. In other words, pop culture is always portraying the theme.

We all know that, at some point, the world we live in will end. So much so that, there is no lack of predictions for the end. Until today, there have been several, but the most impacting was that the world would end in 2012. Which, obviously, did not happen, despite having scared many people.

With everything that is happening on the planet, imagining the end of it doesn’t even seem like something so unrealistic and unlikely to happen. Or else, the world may continue to exist, but what ends up will be us, our civilization.

Collapse

Our society is on its way to collapse in the next two decades. That is, if a drastic shift in global priorities doesn’t happen. Most shocking of all, this prediction was made in a report from the 1970s.

In that document, which was published in the book “The Limits to Growth” in 1972, the MIT team of scientists said that industrial civilization was doomed to collapse if corporations and governments continued to pursue the pursuit of continued economic growth regardless of the costs that this would have.

They predicted 12 possible scenarios for the future. Most of them had a point where natural resources would become so scarce that economic growth would be impossible. In addition, people’s well-being would also plummet.

Among these forecasts, the most catastrophic scenario is called Business as Usual (BAU). He predicted that world economic growth would peak around 2040 and then decline sharply. And this reduction would also happen to the population around the world due to the availability, or lack, of food and natural resources.

Possibilities

Foliage, Dry Leaves, Horse ChestnutHowever, this imminent collapse would not be the end of the human race, but rather a social turning point. He would see living standards fall across the world for decades.

What would be the prospect for society now after nearly half a century? To answer this question, Gaya Herrington, a sustainability researcher and dynamic systems analysis at consultancy KPMG, decided to find out.

In November 2020, Herrington expanded his studies and began analyzing the “Limit of Growth” predictions, bringing them together with the most current data from the world we live in today.

With this, he found that the current state of the Earth, being measured by 10 variables such as population, fertility rates, pollution levels, food production and industrial production, aligned very closely to the scenarios that were predicted in 1972.

“The BAU and Comprehensive Technology (CT) scenarios show a halt in growth within a decade or more from now. Both scenarios therefore indicate that business continuity as usual, that is, the pursuit of continued growth, is not possible,” said Herrington.

To reverse

Fortunately, it is not too late to avoid these two scenarios and put society back on the alternative path, the so-called Stabilized World (SW) scenario.

“It is not yet too late for humanity to purposefully change course to significantly alter the trajectory of the future. Indeed, humanity can choose its own limit or, at some point, reach an imposed limit, at which point a decline in human well-being will have become inevitable,” concluded Herrington.